Nervous system of the body consists of brain, spinal cord, and the massive network of nerves. They are connected by neurons and transmit signals across the body. It coordinates and controls the body functions. The nervous system has two main parts — central nervous system (CNS) comprising of brain and spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system (PNS) made up of nerves that branch off from the spinal cord.
PNS provides sensory information to the PNS. Through the wide and complex network of nerves, the nervous system regulates body mechanism.
Brain is one of the most amazing parts of the human body and is often referred as the command centre of the body. It is divided into three parts namely hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain. The hindbrain consists of medula, pons and cerebellum. The hindbrain coordinates key functions of breathing, sleep, movement and motor activity.
The midbrain is located below the cerebral cortex and is associated with vision, hearing, motor control, alertness, and temperature regulation. It controls movement and reflexes enabling you to respond to all kinds of situations. The midbrain has three main parts — the tectum, tegmentum, and the cerebral peduncles. The tectum is the dorsal side of the midbrain and is involved in certain reflexes in response to visual or auditory stimuli.
The tegmentum runs through the pons and medulla. It is primarily involved in homeostasis and reflex actions. The cerebral peduncles are the anterior part of the midbrain. Made up of a mass of nerve fibres, there are two cerebral peduncles on each side of the brainstem. They help in motor functions.
Forebrain contains the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus. This part of the brain is involved in processing of information related to complex cognitive activities such as logic and reasoning, sensory and associative functions, and voluntary motor activities.
Coming to PNS, this part of the nervous system lies outside your brain and spinal cord. The PNS is involved in carrying commands from the brain to several parts of the body and sending information from those parts of the body back to the brain.